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"We are the protagonists of our stories called life, and there is no limit to how high we can fly."

PHD. MBA. MHS. Type rated on A350, A330, B777, B747-400, B747-200, B757, B767, B737, B727. International Airline Pilot / Author / Speaker. Dedicated to giving the gift of wings to anyone following their dreams. Supporting Aviation Safety through training, writing, and inspiration. Fighting for Aviation Safety and Airline Employee Advocacy. Safety Culture and SMS change agent.

Friday, January 22, 2021

Captain Linda Pauwels

Friday's Fabulous Flyer

Captain Linda Pauwels

B-707 Southern Air Transport Captain
The youngest women Jet Captain 
At the Age of 25

That was many aviation lives ago. Today Linda is a B787 Check Airman for American Airlines, with many years of experience in between. Arriving at American she started over as a B727 second officer, typical in the day, and then moved to the right seat on the B727, B757/B767, A300 and B777. She upgraded to Captain on the MD88 and then A320, and currently flies as a Captain on the B787 as a check airman. She has flown thousands of hours over her career, and yet, she has found a way to do so much more in life outside the flight deck.  

Linda was born in San Pedro, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and after the death of her father, at the age of six, she came to the United States. She faced great adversity in her young life, but never allowed life issues to hold her back. Her experiences taught her even greater resilience, a fabulous trait for any pilot. 

A forty-year marriage to a pilot, two adult children, pets, an Asian garden, flying, and she even made the time in the mid-2000s to write a column for the Orange County Register titled: From the Cockpit. 

Linda's little secret was that she also wrote poetry. 
And she was so kind to send me a copy of her book!

I have to brag a little more about Linda due to her Awards and Honors, before I tell you about her poetry:

  • Alumni Hall of Fame Miami-Dade College, 2005
  • 100 Most Influential Hispanics, Hispanic Business Magazine, 2002
  • Tribute for Excellence in the Field of Transportation Congress of the United States, House of Representatives, 2002
  • McKnight Scholarship, Miami-Dade College, 1985
  • Divisional Award for Outstanding Achievements in Operations Careers Miami-Dade College, 1985

This highly educated woman has a Bachelors of Science from ERAU, a Masters of Science, Education from Azusa Pacific University, and plans on including a PhD from ERAU, as she was accepted in the first cadre of doctoral candidates. 

Pilot, Presenter, Consultant, and Author!

Linda bests describes BEYOND HAIKU, Pilots Write Poetry, when she says: 

Beyond Haiku peeks through the cockpit door to reveal the poetic heart of airline pilots... a selection of haiku and short poems by men and women who fly airplanes for a living. The writing is niche and empathetic. The humor is characteristically wry, befitting the pilot persona. Beautiful illustrations, by children of pilots aged 6 to 17, bring this flight of fancy in for a smooth landing. Proceeds from Beyond Haiku will go to the Allied Pilots Association Emergency Relief and Scholarship Fund, to provide support for pilots furloughed due to the industry effects of COVID-19.

A noble gesture from an amazing woman giving back to her industry and those pilots impacted by COVID.  

What is Haiku you ask? "A Japanese poem of seventeen syllables, in three lines of five, seven, and five, traditionally evoking images of the natural world." Linda evokes images of the world of aviation, and she is bringing those images to you, and helping pilots in the process.  

Order your copy of BEYOND HAIKU on Amazon

She even included pictures of the kiddos who did the artwork and the pilots who contributed:

What's Next? 

Linda's second book is underway: Beyond Haiku: Women Pilots Write Poetry. She is looking for women pilots to submit an original, unpublished haiku or short poem before March 31, 2021. You can submit up to three! Please send your original work to: in an attached "word" document.

I'm going to submit a poem or two...
How about you?

Enjoy the Journey!
XOX Karlene

Thursday, January 21, 2021

Strength in Numbers

You are Not Alone! 

Yesterday I spoke with the FAA and the subject of the ASAP program became a topic of discussion. The FAA investigators I spoke to, do not have access to these events. One of the inspectors said that ASAP was a successful program because of the anonymity. 

I asked, "Is it?"  

What indication identifies 
ASAP is a Success?

I proceeded to explain the numerous events that could have been complete hull losses, as they came within seconds of impact and the associated fixes that did not address the underlying problems. I explained that ASAP reports were at an all time high, and the fixes at an all time low. I shared that a retired FAA prosecuting attorney, who is now an Administrative Law Judge, held the same concerns regarding rise of ASAP reports without the associated fixes. 

Pilots need not be concerned, the FAA will not prosecute pilots for human factor errors.  Unfortunately, it appears the ASAP program may be protecting airline management, as the root cause of the major incidents are due to substandard training, scheduling related events resulting in fatigue, and known mechanical deficiencies. These events won't be adequately addressed, because of the ASAP program. Those who could enforce airline compliance are not allowed to see what is really happening. 

Point in example. The exact events that took down AF447 and the MAX crashes had occurred prior to those crashes and were reported as ASAP events. Nothing was done until after the same events resulted in crashes, where 574 people lost their lives. What about the Colgan Air crash of 2009, how many ASAP reports could have predicted that event? 

Tuesday's post was about Reporting Culture versus an ASAP program. But also, how to report safety concerns and how to protect yourself if the company decides to take action against you. You are not alone, so please don't fear trying to make the system safer for all. 

Accidents are not Surprise Events
They could have been prevented 
But they are hidden by the ASAP system

"Status quo is Latin for, 'The mess we're in.' "

Ronald Reagan

Enjoy the Journey
XO Karlene

Tuesday, January 19, 2021

Reporting Culture

 A Key Element of Safety Culture

Chain of Events

The intent of my doctoral research was to learn what predicted manual flight. However, what I learned had a far greater impact on safety. What was learned could have prevented the Lion Air Flight 602, 2018 crash, Ethiopian Flight 302, 2019 crash, Atlas Air Flight 3591, 2019 crash, and even prevented the Air France Flight 447, 2009, crash.

There is never one reason an accident occurs, but always a chain of events. By breaking a link in that chain we have a chance to avoid the crash. At the core of all of the aforementioned accidents there were failures in safety culture, with a causal link to a reporting culture. People had knowledge that could have prevented the accidents, but they were fearful to speak out and airline management, manufacturers and/or regulators had information and chose not to act. 

Reporting Culture

A reporting culture is when employees are both encouraged and rewarded for reporting safety related concerns. Unfortunately, retaliation against reporting creates an environment where employees become fearful to report anything. While it is difficult to understand why an employer would be reticent to accept an idea to improve operational safety; it's disconcerting to believe they would retaliate simply because the employee provided an internal report. Perhaps it is simply ego of those involved. Perhaps the company is well aware of their operational practices but they identify the risk of life not worth the cost of the fix.  Far too often the business decision is to finance silencing the employee versus doing the right thing. 

Of 7491 Pilots Surveyed: 

Overall 54% of the population was unsure or did not believe their suggestions would be taken into consideration, 34% were unsure or unlikely to critique their training program, 41% lacked a belief or were unsure if the leadership in charge of developing training programs had the expertise of learning, 54% were unsure or believed it was best to keep quiet, and 46% were unsure or did not believe their company would exceed regulatory compliance.

The above responses identify a negative safety culture worldwide. Management may argue, but if the employee's believe it to be true that is the culture.  Without a reporting culture it is impossible to have a safety culture because there is no information sharing, no flexibility, and learning will not occur. If employee's are retaliated against when they bring information forward, the culture is not just. Therefore, of all the elements of a Safety Culture, a reporting culture is key. 

Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP)

ASAP is a pilot self-reporting program to encourage pilots to report information for system improvement without fear of disciplinary action from the FAA. "The goal of the Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) is to enhance aviation safety through the prevention of accidents and incidents. Its focus is to encourage voluntary reporting of safety issues and events that come to the attention of employees of certain certificate holders" )

The concern is, when airlines allege that they have a robust reporting culture because of their ASAP program, is whether or not they have one at all. Do these leaders lack knowledge of the difference between ASAP and a Reporting Culture, or is this simply an excuse to use the FAA ASAP program because they don't have the required reporting culture?

ASAP Versus Reporting Culture

An ASAP program is a component of a Safety Management System (SMS), but not the Reporting Culture component of Safety Culture. The ASAP program became an FAA order (8000.82) on September 3, 2003; whereas SMS became a federal regulation in January 2018. An SMS demands a foundation of Safety Culture, to include a reporting culture. However, when the ASAP program became law over 14 years earlier, the ASAP program was designed for pilots to report themselves to the FAA with the claim that the errors were unintentional, and we would learn from them in order to create a fix. The fact is, ASAP is a program that was designed for pilots to report their own errors, or mechanics to report their errors, or the company to report their errors...

While there is more hidden within this program than most pilots are aware, due to evolution, airline management can report themselves and pilots can report to the FAA more than their own operational flight issues. It has been brought to my attention that some airlines do not have their ASAP program designed to allow this part of the program to work. However, for the most part, pilots are in a continued effort to mitigate risk by self reporting their flight mishaps.

Reporting Culture

A Reporting Culture, is where the pilot, or any employee, can report the company for anything they deem unsafe. Rarely do employees run to the FAA as their first course of action. Pilots want the best for their airline, so they report internally to help with that fix. But, often airline management and associated egos don't always have the same safety alignment as the front line employees.

Because the government realized that airline employers retaliate and the union grievance process is ineffective for addressing safety concerns, the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century (AIR 21) was enacted to protect all airline employees for internally reporting "federal standard" safety concerns to their management, or if the employer refuses to listen, to the FAA. The AIR 21 statute became law in 2000, prior to the ASAP program, and prior to SMS.  

Because the AIR 21 statute was enacted in 2000 and SMS became law in 2018, AIR 21 dictates the report must be a federal standard violation. However, the federal regulation SMS mandates a reporting culture, which enables employees free to report anything to mitigate risk and prevent an accident, even if it's not a Federal Standard.  This conflict with laws will be addressed. 

But who protects manufacturer employees?

Sadly employees of manufacturers were not protected under the Air 21 Act. And, the lack of a reporting culture and fear of retaliation had everything to do with the Max crashes. Therefore, on December 22, 2020, congress enacted the Aircraft Certification, Safety and Accountability Act, as a result of those who were fearful to report failures of their manufacturer employer.

Unfortunately, today, those good people at the FAA are not protected for reporting violations and failures within the FAA.  In that we have FAA leadership who has retaliated against a pilot for reporting safety, it's my opinion that FAA employees may be fearful of reporting their employer's actions and will not come forward. We have work to do. 

History of Protection:

  • 2000: Air 21 protects all employees at airlines for reporting company-based violations of federal standards.
  • 2003: ASAP protects pilots from FAA action for reporting their flight mishaps.
  • 2018: SMS: Federal Law was enacted improve organizational performance, mandating a Safety Culture heading into NextGen.  This nothing short of CRM (Crew Resource Management) for the company, now alias: Corporate Resource Management.

If management at your airline hangs its hat on having a robust reporting culture because they had 25,000 ASAP reports, be very wary as to whether or not you have a reporting culture at all. That high number of events without the fixes is a sign that the system is not working as it should. The goal is to ensure ASAP reports decrease annually, not increase.  If your online ASAP reporting system does not clearly provide direction and means to report the company under non-flight related issues, this may also indicate a non-reporting culture. Management may not understand that they, too, are protected under this program if the lapses are unintentional. And then... therein lies the answer.  If pilots or the company intentionally violate the law, the ASAP program will not protect you. 

How to Report

  • Report to your employer in good faith your concerns in writing, and if able, provide a potential solution to the problem. 
  • Provide the federal standard of the violation for reference. 
  • Copy a number of managers to ensure there is adequate record if they choose to retaliate, or one person decides to ignore the concern.
  • Never report anonymously, at least in the US, or you will not be protected. I personally do not believe there is anonymity within any organization.
  • If you report to the company and they fail to listen, placing lives at risk, in the U.S. you can report to the FAA on the FAA online hotline.  
  • Make a copy of your  FAA report prior to posting it, with the date on the document. Do NOT report anonymously. Save the number provided, as you'll use that later. 

Retaliated Against?

Under the Air 21 statute you only have 90 days to file a complaint through the agency: Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st (AIR 21). If you need assistance, contact Attorney Lee Seham, he knows the law and will guide you. 

If you would like to learn more about SMS, Safety Culture, Pilot Training, Learning, Understanding, and the history of accidents, or want to read the comments pilots worldwide contributed, you can download the doctoral research here: doctoral research  

If you prefer to read the book that resulted from the research, you can order a paper copy on this blog or find an ebook on Amazon: Normalization of Deviance, a Threat to Aviation Safety. 

Safety is Everyone's Responsibility!

Enjoy the Journey!
XOX Karlene 

Monday, January 18, 2021

In Memory of MLK

"I Have A VOICE!"

"The Time is Always Right 
to do What is Right." 
Martin Luther King Jr. 

That time is now!

Saturday, January 9, 2021

Aviation Scholarships of 2021

You Can't Get One if you Don't Apply! 

"Flight Scholarships"

Multiple scholarship opportunities are available to AOPA members, including:

1. AOPA High School Flight Training Scholarships: 80 exceptional aviation-minded high school students will each be awarded $10,000 to pursue a private, sport, or recreational pilot certificate.

2. AOPA Teacher Flight Training Scholarships: Up to 20 teachers dedicated to advancing aviation education in the classroom by teaching the AOPA High School Aviation STEM Curriculum are eligible to apply for this scholarship, which can be used to earn a private, sport, or recreational certificate.

3. AOPA Primary Training Scholarships: Multiple scholarships, ranging from $2,500 to $7,500, will be awarded to members ages 16 and up to help fund the cost of training for a private pilot, sport pilot, or recreational pilot certificate.

4. AOPA Advanced Rating Scholarships: Multiple scholarships, ranging from $3,000 to $10,000, will be awarded to outstanding member pilots with career aspirations seeking an Instrument, Commercial, CFI, CFII, or MEI rating.


NAFI for offering another 

"It's Time for Your Flight To Success" 

Enjoy the Journey!
XO Karlene 

Sunday, January 3, 2021

Aviation Safety in 2021

How Effective is the AIR 21 Law? 

There is no greater threat to aviation safety
than retaliation against frontline airline workers 
for bringing safety concerns forward.

Airline employees are encouraged to report safety concerns. However, with the threat of retaliation looming overhead, they often look the other way. Many also don't know of the laws available to protect them. Many pilots think that the arbitration process is the only resource. Something they are told they must follow. But not always, and not when retaliation results from reporting safety concerns, calling in fatigued, calling in sick etc. 

There is a law specifically enacted to protect the airline employee -  AIR 21. As a matter of fact, this law was recently extended to aircraft manufacturer employees. While the AIR 21 is a huge step above the arbitration process to protect employees, there are some concerns with the law that should be addressed in the New Year. I am going to make an effort to do so, and would like your support to help enact this much needed change to shift the balance back toward the employee and passenger safety.  

Arbitration and Justice 

During the arbitration process, the airline and union are joint parties in the action and the arbitrators are selected and compensated by both the airline and the union. Therefore grievants involved in this process have their cases adjudicated by arbitrators who are nothing but businessmen in a constant search of their next "periodical appointment", which is considered to be an anathema of the judicial process by our Founding Fathers:

That inflexible and uniform adherence to the right of the constitution and of individuals, which we perceive to be indispensable in the courts of justice, can certainly not be expected from judges who hold their offices by a temporary commission. Periodical appointment, however regulated, or by whomsoever made, would in some way or other be fatal to their necessary independence. 

The Federalist Papers No 78

During an arbitration process, rulings often become a business decision and the grievant can expect a measure of rough justice because the arbitrator's bread is buttered equally by two parties - the employer and the union. Justice in the arbitral process is based upon those periodical appointments and fatal to the necessity of independence. For this very reason, and in order to protect the traveling public, the Wendel H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century (AIR 21) was signed into law on April 5, 2000. 

AIR 21 Statute

The AIR 21 statute includes a whistleblower protection provision within the Department of Labor complaint procedure.

While this process was removed from a businessman basing his decision on his financial livelihood to the impartial judicial system, the process appears to slant in favor of the airline, and not the employee. The AIR 21 protection therefore becomes a placebo of safety if the employee is unaware of the challenges within. It's also rare that the employee will take on an airline, even if they know about the law, if management is adamant about burying the employee. Even if the employee pursues, survives, and wins after years of pain, nobody really wins because the toll on the reporting employee is so huge, and the law does not provide for the airline to become accountable. 

One judge mandates the airlines to communicate the ruling to all employees. This requirement assists with accountability that is not built into the law. These trials are also open to the public, and everything in the trial becomes public knowledge, in the interest of safety. However, employees are bound to silence because of airline social media policies that protect their transgressions from the public. Safety becomes a game of chess. When the airline is blatantly in the wrong, management uses shareholder profits to appeal. Safety continues to twist in the wind while years of litigation continue. 

Management believes in plausible deniability, but I believe knowledge is power to create change. Therefore, I want every employee to understand the AIR 21 law, the protections and the limitations, and to not fear reporting safety concerns. 

As previously written in the February 8, 2020 post, "Lack of FAA Oversight", the AIR 21 statute includes for prongs that must all be met in order to prevail in an AIR 21 case:

  1. Substantiation of a violation, 
  2. the report must be brought forth in good faith, 
  3. an adverse action is felt after the reporting event, and 
  4. there must be a causal link between the reporting and the adverse action.

Protected Activity

Protected activity is a violation of a federal standard. However, airline employees are required to be proactive to mitigate risk. Safety Management Systems (SMS) were designed to mitigate risk in order to improve safety with information sharing in a retaliatory-free environment. This was an effort to solve a problem before the accident occurred. If we see something, we are required to say something. 

Management is also required to follow the ICAO risk matrix to determine when to take action on a reported event. Therefore, even if the internal report to the company is something that is not specifically a Federal Law, but the employee identifies the current process to be unsafe, and the airline "should" address it per the ICAO risk matrix, the employee is required to report it. Unfortunately the AIR 21 stature has yet to identify the component of a reporting culture required in a safety culture, the foundations of an SMS, to qualify on its own as protected activity. The 2000 AIR 21 statute must be brought up to date with the 2018 Federal SMS mandate. 

Imagine an employee being retaliated against for reporting his concerns for lack of training for the event that took down AF447, yet after the accident the reasons the plane crashed were precisely what that pilot had reported. After the fact, the training became law. The employee should have been protected for bringing that information forward prior to the accident, and prior to the federal mandates of training. Yet, at this time they are not. 


On January 7, 2015, FAA Administrator Michael Huerta described SMS as "an organization-wide approach to mitigating risk in airline operations." Huerta also issued the final regulation that required most U.S. passenger and cargo airlines to implement a safety management system (SMS) as of January 2018. Perhaps if we were able to speak to Mr. Huerta today, we could query him on his intent of risk mitigation regarding SMS and a reporting culture in relation to the AIR 21 law. However, despite  numerous attempts to speak to Mr. Huerta and convey concerns, and to request his support to included the mandate of a reporting culture to become a protected activity, he remains unapproachable.  

Statute of Limitations 

Unfortunately the employee must file the AIR 21 complaint within 90 days of the adverse action. This is the shortest accrual date for a statute of limitations of any law. Most employees aren't even aware this law exists, and they default to their union process in hope of protection. Shame on the union's legal team for not filing the AIR 21 complaint on the employee's behalf, or mentioning this protection is available. Instead, the employee begins the lengthy arbitral process receiving false hope that they will be protected through the arbitration process. Unfortunately, by the time the employee realizes the union process is a futile attempt to get their job back, they have lost their rights due to exceeding the 90-day statute of limitations. 

Why only 90-days to protect the traveling public?

When airline management knowingly and falsely forces a pilot into a psychiatric evaluation and pays a doctor to create a false diagnosis, or terminates an employee with false charges because they reported a safety violation to their management team, is that not fraud? However, fraud for anything other than retaliation for reporting safety has a 3-10 year statute of limitation. 

The Process

Under the AIR 21 statute, the FAA and OSHA begin independent investigations. The problem begins with the OSHA investigator lacking knowledge regarding aviation safety. The second problem is the length of time the OSHA investigation takes, which has been noted to be up to five years. At the end of the day, OSHA most often rules in favor of the airline. Why does OSHA have control over the FAA? Perhaps the NTSB should become involved. However, I am familiar with one case in which OSHA ruled in the pilot's favor after 3.5 years, but then the company appealed and two-years later it went to trial. Then a two year appeal. This pilot was without a paycheck the entire time. 

In another case, the FAA issued an airline a notice of violation for violating FAR 117, improper scheduling due to not providing adequate crew rest. Yet, a year later the OSHA Investigator still ruled in favor of the airline. How is that even possible?

Attorney Lee Seham, an AIR 21 legal expert, found a workaround to this taxpayer-funded excessive OSHA delay. He understands that employees who have been unjustly removed from duty deserve immediate justice. They cannot afford years without a paycheck while waiting for OSHA. He takes  the immediate loss with OSHA, then appeals. This enables the employee to take this from the hands of OSHA and go directly to court. However, in most cases the airlines are amicable to a resolution and settle without going to court. Until they aren't. 

The Judicial Procedural Process

"The scales of justice often, in my head, are unbalanced. 
And so my job is to try to balance out those scales."  
   Letitia James 
Attorney General NY

When the airline decides to use the stockholders' wealth to bury the employee, the balance of justice shifts to the airline. An airline utilizes more than their staff attorneys, they go outside and employ top legal entities, paying thousands of dollars per hour. Their expense is unlimited, while the shareholders are kept in the blind. Resources spent to pay doctors to remove pilots are categorized as vendors. Managers that should be running the airline are now spending time to manipulate the facts and create pretext against the employee. The extraordinary legal fees are buried with business as usual. 


If the employee is successful, this law allows the employee to receive "reasonable" attorney fees. They also get their job back, their back pay, and compensatory damages. Compensatory damages are intended to compensate the employee for pain and suffering. Whereas punitive damages are awarded to "punish" the wrongdoer. In civil cases punitive damages are allowed if the defendant displayed an intent to cause harm. Unfortunately there are no punitive damages in the AIR 21 statute. 

If the airline intentionally retaliated to discredit and bury the reporting employee, utilized airline resources, perhaps millions, to include multiple executives' time, and premeditated a false mental health diagnosis and perhaps paid a doctor 20 times the normal fee for a false mental health diagnosis - one would think this would constitute an intent to cause harm. However, this law only allows for compensatory damages regardless of the intent to harm an individual. 

Title VII complainants, on the other hand, are awarded punitive damages if the employer engages in discriminatory behavior with malice or reckless indifference to federally protected rights. Gender discrimination statute of limitations also allows for 180-300 days to report. Therefore, in the eyes of the AIR 21 statute, gender discrimination appears to be a higher priority than passenger safety. Despite, 346 people being killed in the MAX 737 crashes because Whistleblowers feared coming forward, and nobody was held accountable to training and manufacturing, not even the FAA. Where is accountability?

Punishment is not for revenge, 
but to lessen crime and reform the criminal
Elizabeth Fry

Lack of Accountability 

The AIR 21 statute does not allow for naming individuals for their actions, therefore there is no accountability. The law only allows for naming the airline. However, the airline is not at fault, the managers and executives who are placing passengers' lives at risk, funded by the shareholder's profits, are responsible for the behavior. 

When an employee files an AIR 21 complaint, the managers and executives involved are allowed to continue with business as usual until the ruling - in some cases 4 to 6 years out. Maybe longer. And during this time, despite the premeditation with an intent to harm, these managers and executives are promoted and continue harming others. Did I state until the ruling? Please accept my apology. 

They are allowed to continue on as if nothing ever happened, even after a ruling for the employee, because nobody is named in the lawsuit. If the highest level executives are involved, they won't take action upon themselves. Despite policy violations, federal violations, intent to harm, false testimony in court, and a "ruling" that names the individuals for their inappropriate behavior, these managers are still allowed to conduct business as usual. They can obtain high-ranking government positions, become airline CEOs, and are often promoted within the the organization.  

Without Accountability
There is no Responsibility 

Without naming the individuals in the lawsuit and holding them accountable, the AIR 21 statute does nothing to protect the traveling public because nothing is ever resolved. The airlines in some cases continue to violate the very violation they received many years earlier, in which they retaliated against the employee for reporting. 

Who then is responsible for an airline that receives a violation? One would think the board of directors might be responsible. However, history shows they sit silent and don't do anything. There are laws in place, but they appear to slap a hand and those complicit individuals continue  placing passengers at risk. 

How do we Improve Aviation Safety?

At the end of the day you change the law to make it better! 

Changing the AIR 21 Law is what I intend on doing. Please leave airline names off your comments. This post is not about individual airlines, but what we can do to improve safety going forward. If you have stories of particular airlines, feel free to email me, as I will use them in my pursuit of reforming the AIR 21 statute as an example, to align the statute with a Safety Culture. 

Thank you for your support! 

Enjoy the Journey!
XO Karlene